||covers the "Transaustralia" reference area, composed of the "Pama-Nyungan" hypothesis (sets 29-A to 29-X, within the wider "Australian" hypothesis) plus the "Tasmanian" notional set of extinct languages (29-Y); together comprising a total of 25 sets of languages (213 outer languages) spoken or formerly spoken by small hunter-gatherer communities, originally occupying the whole of Australia and Tasmania (except the far-north, covered by geozone 28=): 29-A DJAMBARR+ DJINANG 29-B WARLPIRI+ PITJANTJA 29-C ARABANA+ YARLI 29-D MURUWARI 29-E BAAGANDJI+ MARAWARA* 29-F NGARINYERI+ YITHAYITHA 29-G WUURONG+ KOLAKNGAT 29-H NULIT+ THANG 29-I DHUDOROA 29-J PALLANGAN-MIDDANG 29-K YOTA+ YABULA 29-L WIRADHURI+ GAMILA 29-M THAWA+ WORIMI 29-N GUMBAYNGGIR+ YAYGIR 29-O BANDJALANG+ YUGUM 29-P YAGARA+GOWAR 29-Q WAGA+ GABI 29-R MARGANY+ MUNGKAN 29-S GALIBAMU 29-T LARDIL+ JAKULA 29-U KALKUTUNG+ YALARNNGA 29-V WAGAYA+ WARLUWARA 29-W WARUMUNGU 29-X ARANDA+ GAIDIDJ 29-Y MARRAWAH+ KAOOTA* The scantily documented languages of Tasmania (29-Y) were effectively extinct before 1900, and this set is therefore excluded from totals of languages spoken during the 20th cent. the Australian mainland languages covered by phylozone 29= (sets 29-A to 29-X) account for approximately one third of all outer languages which have become extinct throughout the world during the 20th century. This destruction of indigenous speech-communities has resulted from the occupation and ethnic-clearance of their traditional space, primarily by sea-borne speakers of [52=] English. Traditional speech communities in Australia were always small, and only 14 among 298 surviving outer-languages in zones 28= and 29= (marked ✓ in column 2) are likely to have totalled 1,000 or more voices each in the year 1999. The intensified study, development and teaching of those languages would appear to be an educational, scientific and cultural priority in the 21st century. Most surviving speech-communities of this zone are bilingual, with primary fluency – especially among younger speakers - in [52=] Australian creole and/or English.