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Linguasphere-Register

ID a Name b 6 North-America
ID a 6
Attributes
Page f 478
LSName g NORTH-AMERICA
LSType h sector
Grouping i geo
IsNotional j no
Notes k This geosector covers 63 sets of languages (= 336 outer languages, comprising 978 inner languages) spoken or formerly spoken by traditional "Amerindian" (plus Inuit-Aleut) communities across North America and northern Meso-America (since before the arrival of speakers of Indo-European languages, principally [52=] English, and [51=] Español and Français). The first six zones of this sector (4 phylozones and 2 geozones) cover the northern and central regions of North America, which have been characterised in recent centuries by the wide geographic distribution of a relatively small number of sets of languages. These six zones together comprise a total of only 13 sets (including a southward extension as far as Honduras of related languages in zone 65=). 60= ARCTIC phylozone 61= NADENIC phylozone 62= ALGIC phylozone 63= SAINT-LAWRENCE geozone 64= MISSISSIPPI geozone 65= AZTECIC phylozone The last four zones of this sector (all geozones) cover the linguistically more complex western and southern regions of North America, including northern Central America. They together comprise a total of 50 sets. Geozone 66=Farwest covers 26 sets of languages spoken on the west-coast and hinterland regions of Canada and the USA, from Alaska to California. Geozone 67=Desert covers 5 sets of languages spoken in the area between New Mexico and the Bay of California (in Mexico). Geozone 68=Gulf covers 8 sets of languages spoken around the periphery of the Gulf of Mexico, from Mexico (Tamaulipas) to USA (Florida); and geozone 69=Mesoamerica covers 11 sets of languages spoken between northern Mexico and northern Costa Rica. 66= FARWEST geozone 67= DESERT geozone 68= GULF geozone 69= MESO-AMERICA geozone The greatest impact on the geography of the linguasphere has resulted during the last 500 years from the ethnic clearance and repopulation of two continents (North America and Australia) by sea-borne invaders from Europe, predominantly speakers of [52=] English – together with speakers of [51=] Español and Français in the case of North America. In North America, these invaders were accompanied by forced immigrants transported from among hundreds of speech communities in Africa, who were themselves impelled to create new speech communities under conditions of slavery and segregation based on pigmentation of the skin. The variety of their own African languages (from sectors 0=, 1= and 9=) was abandoned in favour of new (creolised) forms of European languages (from zones 51= and 52=), but there were also some linguistic contacts and influences between African immigrants and speakers of American "Indian" languages: cf. [51=] Louisianais (Houma) and perhaps [62=] Lumbee. Lands "reserved" by the invaders for the use of indigenous American speech communities, sometimes far from their original homelands, are referred to in USA as "reservations" or "agencies" or "nations", and in Canada as "reserves" (see column 3, below).
Statistics
10 Zones • 63 Sets • 116 Chains • 184 Nets • 337 OuterLanguages • 898 InnerLanguages • 384 Dialects • 1173 Leaves • 528 ISO-639-Relatives • 1356 ISO-639-6-Relatives
Relatives
ISO-639 A 1 ISO-639-5-Collective-nai North American Indian
ISO-639-6 B 1 ISO-639-6-amrd Amerind
10 Nodes assigned
1 ▶ 60 Arctic
2 ▶ 61 Nadenic
3 ▶ 62 Algic
4 ▶ 63 Saintlawrence
5 ▶ 64 Mississippi
6 ▶ 65 Aztecic
7 ▶ 66 Farwest
8 ▶ 67 Desert
9 ▶ 68 Gulf
10 ▶ 69 Meso-America

Requested at 2017-04-28 12:13:12 Europe/Berlin from 54.81.198.150

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