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1-4 of 4 matches of 32810 nodes total

Match 1
ID a & Name b 6= NORTH-AMERICA geosector
Attributes
Page g 478
LSName h NORTH-AMERICA
LSType i sector
Grouping j geo
IsNotional k no
Notes l This geosector covers 63 sets of languages (= 336 outer languages, comprising 978 inner languages) spoken or formerly spoken by traditional "Amerindian" (plus Inuit-Aleut) communities across North America and northern Meso-America (since before the arrival of speakers of Indo-European languages, principally [52=] English, and [51=] Español and Français). The first six zones of this sector (4 phylozones and 2 geozones) cover the northern and central regions of North America, which have been characterised in recent centuries by the wide geographic distribution of a relatively small number of sets of languages. These six zones together comprise a total of only 13 sets (including a southward extension as far as Honduras of related languages in zone 65=). 60= ARCTIC phylozone 61= NADENIC phylozone 62= ALGIC phylozone 63= SAINT-LAWRENCE geozone 64= MISSISSIPPI geozone 65= AZTECIC phylozone The last four zones of this sector (all geozones) cover the linguistically more complex western and southern regions of North America, including northern Central America. They together comprise a total of 50 sets. Geozone 66=Farwest covers 26 sets of languages spoken on the west-coast and hinterland regions of Canada and the USA, from Alaska to California. Geozone 67=Desert covers 5 sets of languages spoken in the area between New Mexico and the Bay of California (in Mexico). Geozone 68=Gulf covers 8 sets of languages spoken around the periphery of the Gulf of Mexico, from Mexico (Tamaulipas) to USA (Florida); and geozone 69=Mesoamerica covers 11 sets of languages spoken between northern Mexico and northern Costa Rica. 66= FARWEST geozone 67= DESERT geozone 68= GULF geozone 69= MESO-AMERICA geozone The greatest impact on the geography of the linguasphere has resulted during the last 500 years from the ethnic clearance and repopulation of two continents (North America and Australia) by sea-borne invaders from Europe, predominantly speakers of [52=] English – together with speakers of [51=] Español and Français in the case of North America. In North America, these invaders were accompanied by forced immigrants transported from among hundreds of speech communities in Africa, who were themselves impelled to create new speech communities under conditions of slavery and segregation based on pigmentation of the skin. The variety of their own African languages (from sectors 0=, 1= and 9=) was abandoned in favour of new (creolised) forms of European languages (from zones 51= and 52=), but there were also some linguistic contacts and influences between African immigrants and speakers of American "Indian" languages: cf. [51=] Louisianais (Houma) and perhaps [62=] Lumbee. Lands "reserved" by the invaders for the use of indigenous American speech communities, sometimes far from their original homelands, are referred to in USA as "reservations" or "agencies" or "nations", and in Canada as "reserves" (see column 3, below).
Statistics
10 Zones • 63 Sets • 116 Chains • 184 Nets • 337 OuterLanguages • 898 InnerLanguages • 384 Dialects • 528 ISO-639-Relatives
Relatives
ISO-639 A 1 ISO-639-5-Collective-nai North American Indian
Match 2
ID a & Name b 83= PRE-ANDES geozone
Attributes
Zone f pdf
Page g 584
LSName h PRE-ANDES
LSType i zone
Grouping j geo
IsNotional k no
Notes l covers the "Pre-Andes" reference area, composed of sets not covered by any phylozone; comprising 20 sets of languages (= 73 outer languages) spoken by communities in South America along the eastern margins of the Andes: 83-A COFÁN83-B MURUI+ OKAINA 83-C ANDOQUE 83-D BORA+ MIRAÑA 83-E SHUAR+ AGUAJUN 3-F CHAYAHUITA+ JEVERO 83-G SHIMACU+ ITUCALI 83-H CÁYAPWI+ IQUITO 83-I YAMÉO+ NIXAMWI 83-J ITE'TSHI 83-K OMURANO 83-L CANDOXI+ CHAPARA 83-M YURAKARE+ MANSINYO 83-N CASHIBO+ JUANAWO 83-O CHAPACURA+ TORÁ 83-P ITONAMA+ SARAMO 83-Q CAYUBABA 83-R BAGUAJA+ ISIAMA 83-S MOSETEN+ TSIMANÉ 83-T TEHUELCHE+ ONA including languages sometimes known as 'maina' or 'mayna', an outsiders' term applied indifferently to a variety of indigenous languages in Peru and adjacent countries From Ecuador to Bolivia, "Amerindian" languages in the Pre-Andes area are frequently submerged < [84=] Quechua+ Quichua, as well as by [51=] Español.
Scale o 4
Statistics
20 Sets • 31 Chains • 55 Nets • 73 OuterLanguages • 182 InnerLanguages • 2 Dialects
Relatives
GeoEntity C 1 Argentina | Bolivia | Brazil | Chile | Colombia | Ecuador | Peru
Match 3
ID a & Name b 85-JAA-a Yamana
Attributes
Zone f pdf
Page g 601
LSName h Yamana
LSType i outer language
IsNotional k no
Notes l yahgan, yaghan, tequenica, inchi-kut # yamana=«man»; inchi-kut =«"injun", "Amerindian" speech» ¶ probably extinct ⊕ Tierra del Fuego: Isla Grande and adjacent islands
Scale o 0*
Statistics
5 InnerLanguages
Relatives
GeoEntity C 1 Chile | Argentina
Match 4
ID a & Name b 8= SOUTH-AMERICA geosector
Attributes
Page g 569
LSName h SOUTH-AMERICA
LSType i sector
Grouping j geo
IsNotional k no
Notes l This geosector covers 121 sets of languages (= 415 outer languages, comprising 964 inner languages) spoken or formerly spoken by traditional "Amerindian" communities across South America and southern Meso-America (since before the arrival of speakers of Indo-European languages, principally [51=] Español and Português, but also [51=] Français and [52=] English and Nederlands). 13 sets are treated within three phylozones, 80=, 82= and 88=, while the remaining 110 sets are classified geographically within seven geozones. Geozone 81= covers languages spoken by communities in southern Meso-America and parts of northern South America, and the geozones 83=, 84= and 85=, in geographic sequence, cover languages spoken by communities in the Andean regions, southward as far as Tierra del Fuego. Geozones 86=, 87= and 89= cover languages spoken by communities in the Mato Grosso, in the Amazon Basin and in northeastern Brazil. 80= CARIBIC phylozone 81= INTER-OCEAN geozone 82= ARAWAKIC phylozone 83= PRE-ANDES geozone 84= ANDES geozone 85= CHACO-CONE geozone 86= MATO-GROSSO geozone 87= AMAZON geozone 88= TUPIC phylozone 89= BAHIA geozone In spelling the reference-names of languages spoken in areas where [51=] Español is in general use, the usages of the letters /c/ or /qu/ are normally preferred to use of the letter /k/, and the usage of /ch/ to the use of /sh/. In areas where [51=] Português is in general use, the usage of the letter /x/ is preferred to use of /sh/.
Statistics
10 Zones • 121 Sets • 187 Chains • 285 Nets • 416 OuterLanguages • 964 InnerLanguages • 260 Dialects • 77 ISO-639-Relatives
Relatives
ISO-639 A 1 ISO-639-5-Collective-sai South American Indian
GeoEntity C 1 Brazil | Colombia | French Guiana | Guyana | Suriname | Venezuela | Trinidad and Tobago

1-4 of 4 matches of 32810 nodes total

Requested by 3.229.117.191 at 2024-05-28 09:58:10 Europe/Berlin.

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